This is the organization that channels government money directly into research (tweede geldstroom) as distinct from indirect research funding through the universities (eerste geldstroom). Funding is channeled through NWO to the Stichtingen ASTRON and SRON (see above), and through NWO's Exact Sciences (EW) board to individual astronomy projects. NWO also has direct programs for funding long-term collaborative visits by foreign scientists and for funding foreign trips by Dutch-based faculty members and Ph.D students. The person with responsibility for astronomy at NWO-EW is Dr. Ronald Stark, a Leiden graduate. The headquarters of NWO are in Den Haag.